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Posts tagged ‘Usability’

Are Consent Forms Always Necessary?

Are consent forms always necessary? We’re told that consent forms are an indispensable part of ethical user research. Consent forms are the vehicle to give and get informed consent – they inform the participants of what the study will entail and they allow the participant to indicate consent – with a signature and date.A consent form

Yet consent forms can conflict with the informal, friendly rapport that we try to establish with participants. Anything you present for people to sign immediately looks like a legal document or liability waiver. It puts them on guard.

That’s ironic because consent forms are the opposite of legal waivers. Legal documents are created to protect the interests of the company that creates them, while consent forms are created to protect the rights of the people signing them. Yet most participants assume they are signing a typical legal waiver.

Consent forms seem acceptable in more formal user research situations, such as usability testing and focus groups, but they seem odd and even off-putting when used in more informal situations. I’ve found them to be especially awkward when doing field studies at people’s offices. You strive to set up an informal situation, such as asking someone to show you how they create reports or asking them to try out a new design for an expense report application. But when you show up with a consent form for them to sign, it shatters the informal, comfortable rapport you tried so hard to establish. I’ve had people react to consent forms in this kind of situation with, “Hey! I thought we were just talking here.” How many times in the course of your work-life have you had someone show up to a meeting with a legal document for you to sign?

So I say use your judgment. When a consent form feels like it would be overly formal, don’t use it (unless your legal department requires it). Instead, get informed consent informally by email. “Inform” with your email describing what will take place, and get “consent” from their reply email agreeing to participate. At the start of the session, you can inform them again with a summary of what you’ll be doing. They will then give consent by continuing to participate in the session.

A good guideline is how comfortable or uncomfortable you feel when giving participants the consent form. If you feel uncomfortable, you’re probably breaking a group norm. So you should find a more acceptable way of getting informed consent.

Effectively Communicating User Research Findings

I presented at UXPA 2013 today on Effectively Communicating User Research Findings.

This is the reason I’ve been way too busy to blog lately. I’ve been working non-stop on this presentation and also my UXmatters article published this week on Creating Better UX Research Videos: http://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2013/07/creating-better-ux-research-videos.php

So check either of these out.

UX Testing?!!

Old Man Usability

Old Man Usability

Okay, now wait just a goddamn minute! UX testing? U-X testing?!! Now that’s just going too far!

You think you’re all better than me and don’t need “usability” anymore? “User experience” is a more inclusive and descriptive term about the aspects we’re interested in these days. Yeah yeah, fine. It’s more than just usability. Okay, I get it.

But keep your damn UX hands off my usability testing!!! That’s my signature method. I invented that! Talk about kicking a man when he’s down.

What am I talking about, you say? I’ve begun to notice this disturbing trend of you UX creeps stealing my method and calling it “UX” testing. Just look at this recent article from those fancy-pants, “digital marketers” over at eConsultancy: A Case for UX Testing and Agile. And then I noticed this article from last year: UX Testing and Cultural Preferences. Even User Zoom has gotten into the act with this article: 17 Questions Answered About UX Testing and Agile. And it doesn’t stop there. I just Googled “ux testing” and got 28,300 results!

Usability testing has been providing more than just usability for a long time. So in some ways I see your point that perhaps the word “usability” only describes part of what this method provides insight into.

But usability testing is the one method that’s still primarily about usability. Put participants in a lab (or test them remotely), give them tasks to perform, observe their behavior, and ask them to tell you what they’re thinking – that’s usability testing. In addition to assessing usability, it can provide information about satisfaction, emotions, and opinions, but it doesn’t give you a true depiction of the user experience. Other UX research methods give you a better picture of the user experience by observing people in their natural contexts of use. You can test usability, but you can’t really test the user experience.

And what are these people who are doing “UX testing” really doing? You guessed it! Usability testing. It’s nothing different. Just a name change.

So, I agree that user experience makes sense, but that doesn’t mean you should do a global find and replace, turning every instance of “usability” into “user experience.”

So keep your damn hands off my usability testing! It will always be “usability testing” no matter what you want to call it.

By the way, Googling “usability testing” brings up 2,110,000 results. So there!

- Old Man Usability

Too Cool for Your Usability Test

CoolNo matter how well you recruit representative participants for a usability test and no matter how well you plan the testing, there are times when you’ll ask participants to perform a task that they might not normally perform themselves. It’s rare that every task you ask people to perform matches exactly what they would do. When this happens, most participants are agreeable enough to just “play along” for the purposes of the test.

Sure, it’s good to know what a participant would normally do instead of your planned task, but that’s more useful to learn during field studies. During a usability test, you usually just want to observe how well people can perform tasks.

During a recent usability test of an intranet design, I asked participants to browse the Blogs section to test out the usability of the filtering and searching functions common across the various sections of the intranet. I used the Blogs section as an example because that was the section we had built out in our prototype. Unfortunately, I came across two participants who were “too cool” to read blogs. In fact, they were too cool to even play along with my ridiculous and demeaning scenario.

It went something like this:

Me: Show me where you’d go if you wanted to see all the blogs in the company.

Joe Cool: Oh, I wouldn’t do that.

Me: Why?

Joe Cool: I don’t read the blogs.

Me: Why is that?

Joe Cool: Who cares about blogs? I don’t have time to read blogs.

Me: Okay, but if you did want to see all the blogs, where would you find them?

Joe Cool: I really wouldn’t do that. People here don’t really pay attention to the blogs. Who has time for that? We have enough to do with…

[Two minutes later]

Me: Okay, well that’s good to know, but just for the sake of this session, let’s say that you did want to read the blogs, where would you go to do that?

Joe Cool: [Sigh] Well, I guess I’d go here, and – here it is. But you see the problem with blogs is that…

[One minute rant later]

Me: Okay, what would you do if you wanted this to show you the most popular blog posts in the company?

Joe Cool: I don’t really care about what other people think is popular, especially from people who read blogs.

Me: Okay, but if someone else wanted to see the most popular blog posts in the company, what should they do here?

Joe Cool: Maybe they should ask someone else who reads blogs a lot? Or they should get a life and do something more productive.

Me: Okay, let’s move on to the next part…

Luckily, the next task was cool enough for him. Sometimes that’s all you can hope for.

What’s Wrong With Usability Anyway?

old man

Old Man Usability

 

Okay, fine. I get it. You don’t think that I, usability, am cool anymore, and you don’t want to be seen with me now. I’m the dorky, embarassing parent, and you want to hang out with your cool, “user experience” friends. That’s okay. It’s only a natural part of growing up, I guess.

 

Although I brought you into this field, gave you your first job, supported you, and brought you respect and recognition, I guess you’re ready to go out on your own now, and you need to establish your own identity. That’s understandable, but I must admit I was a little hurt when even my most loyal child, the Usability Professionals Association changed its name to the User Experience Professionals Association. Okay, actually that one hurt a lot.

Don’t get me wrong, I do admit that “user experience” makes sense. There’s more to what people experience than just usability. I realize that. But don’t ever forget that usability is still very important. In fact, I’m probably the most important of the elements that make up user experience. If something isn’t usable, then it can’t really be useful, desirable, or valuable can it?

In fact, most of what you and your friends do under the name “user experience” today is what we did back in my day, under the name “usability.” So I don’t really see the big difference.

I think I deserve a little respect, though. I spent many years making a name for myself and getting people to think about the needs of the user. The current popularity of user experience wouldn’t be possible without the trail I blazed first. At least people know my name, usability, and what it means. Try finding a consistent definition of user experience, ha!

So after all I’ve done for you, this is the thanks I get? People declare that usability is old, tired, boring, uncool, not innovative, and even claim that I’m dead? Just wait until you have offspring of your own. See how you feel when they move on from user experience to the next buzz word.

Already I can see it beginning. Everyone’s jumping on the bandwagon and calling themselves a user experience professional these days. The term user experience is getting too broadly defined and overexposed. I can feel the pendulum starting to swing back. At this point, I’m so uncool that I’m actually becoming cool again. Soon I’ll be able to say, “I’m back!” Just you wait and see!

Caring for Your User Researcher

Affectionate dog

Affectionate dog (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Congratulations! You are now the proud owner of a user researcher. Treat him or her well and you’ll have years of effectively designed products. This guide will help you in the care and nurturing of your user researcher.

Feed your researcher well

  • Research days are often very busy and unpredictable. The most important person to consider on these days is not the clients or other observers; it’s the person who has to remain sharpest – the researcher.
  • Make sure your researcher is well fed and has enough time to eat meals. This will provide the energy needed to concentrate on the research session.
  • You may remember the meals, but don’t forget the snacks. If everyone else gets cookies, make sure you save some for the researcher.

Avoid burnout

  • Research is often very mentally challenging. It’s easy for your researcher to get burned out, and when that happens, he or she can’t operate at top form, which could mean missing things or not asking the right questions.
  • Don’t schedule too many sessions in a single day. Four to five usability testing sessions and three or four field studies are about the maximum before burnout sets in.
  • Provide enough breaks between sessions, and allow your researcher to relax during those times.
  • Don’t fill the break times with meetings or discussions with clients. Provide time to rest the mind. Your researcher may need to step away and have some alone time.

Provide variety

  • Most researchers don’t want to do the same things all the time. If you don’t provide enough variety, eventually he or she will seek variety by going to another company.
  • Provide variety in the following aspects: clients, platforms to work on (websites, intranets, mobile devices, software, products, service design, etc.), research activities (usability testing, unmoderated studies, field studies, etc.), and types of people to work with.

Let your researcher run free

  • Don’t micromanage your user researcher. Trust his or her judgment.
  • Provide input on what you want to learn from the research, review the research plan, but give your researcher the independence to make the final decisions on how to accomplish the research goals. Remember you selected your researcher for his or her expertise. Listen to it.

Provide enough time to do quality work

  • Ensure that your researcher has enough time to plan the research and analyze the results.
  • Understand that your researcher will often get very interested and involved in the results and will want to produce a thorough deliverable. If there is time, allow for this.

Give praise and recognition

  • Like most people, your researcher will appreciate praise, recognition, and rewards for a job well done.
  • Your researcher will appreciate it when people take the user research seriously and appreciate the findings.

Let your researcher out to play with others

  • Your researcher will often interact with users, but otherwise, research is often a solitary activity that can get somewhat lonely.
  • Encourage your researcher work with others on the project team, such as designers and developers, to provide a more well-rounded perspective of their work and to give them a first-hand insight into the research.
  • Don’t exclude your researcher as soon as the research part of the project is completed. Keep your researcher around to use his or her valuable knowledge in the design and development phases.

Encourage your researcher’s development

  • Encourage your researcher to keep up with developments in the field by reading books, reading blogs and other Web resources, and attending events.
  • Encourage him or her to publish, present, and attend conferences and other industry events.

By following these guidelines, you should have a long and healthy working relationship with your user researcher. Good luck and have fun!

 

Stay Involved with a Usability Review

Before software usability testing emerged in the 1980s and became more widespread in the 90s, quality assurance testing was the only way software was tested before release. Quality assurance was focused on ensuring that developed software met the defined requirements and did not contain any defects. However, requirements were rarely generated through user research. Instead they were usually generated by business stakeholders and documented by business analysts. If users were involved at all, they were often represented by a few subject-matter experts gathered in meetings to talk about what they wanted the software to do.

Bug tracking software

Quality Assurance Testing

Quality assurance analysts tested the software to find technical defects. If the software did what it was supposed to do according to the requirements, it passed the test, regardless of how usable it was or how well it fit the needs of the users.

User Acceptance Testing

“Users” and stakeholders were also involved in user acceptance testing, which was really just a sign off that the software did what it was supposed to do. Occurring at the very end of the software development process, it was difficult to make anything but very minor changes at that point. As long as the software did what it was supposed to do, stakeholders were willing to overlook usability issues. It seemed easier to write off any problems as things to address in training, rather than to require additional development work.

The Evolution of Usability

As it became obvious that this method of software development was failing to address usability issues, usability testing was added to projects in a similar manner as quality assurance, evaluating software at the end of a project to find and fix usability problems. As it became apparent that this was too late to make any major changes, usability testing gradually moved further and further forward in the design process, with multiple iterations of design and testing. Eventually people realized that it would be better to avoid problems in the first place by finding out what users really need at the beginning of the project. Proper user research was born.

We Forgot the End of Projects

Unfortunately, as we’ve moved user research and usability testing earlier in the process, we’ve tended to overlook the end of projects. We do the upfront user research through iterative design and usability testing, but once development begins, we often drop out and move on to the next project. Then when the final product is released, we often find ourselves scratching our heads, thinking, “what happened?” as we see it varies greatly from what we intended.

All kinds of things can happen between the final design iteration we test and the final coded interface. Without being involved in checking the final design and development, problems tend to slip through.

Usability Review

To solve this problem in a previous job, I created a process I called a Usability Review. During functional QA testing, a usability analyst would review the developed application looking for usability and design problems. Any issues found were entered in the QA bug tracking software (Test Director in this case) as usability or design issues and assigned to a developer to review and fix. After fixing or rejecting the problem, the developer assigned the issue back to the usability analyst to either accept or reject the solution. This worked very well and caught a lot of issues.

Advantages of a Formal Usability Review

You may think that staying involved throughout the project would be enough to find and prevent any usability and design problems, but there are several advantages to having an official, detailed usability review process.

  1. As an official step in the project, the usability review gets added to the project plan, ensuring that it will actually take place and that someone will let you know when the application is ready for review. Without that official task in the project plan, it’s easy for others to forget to notify you, and when you’re busy on other projects, it’s easy for you to forget also.
  2. A usability review requires you to examine the application in detail, rather than giving it an overview. A detailed examination tends to find more problems and gives you a more realistic sense of how well it will work for the users.
  3. Entering the issues in the QA bug tracking software gives usability and design problems the same importance and status as QA defects, makes someone responsible for fixing them, and gives you the power to approve or reject the solution.

Can’t QA People Perform the Usability Review?

Can’t Quality Assurance people find usability and design issues themselves, or can’t they be trained to do that? Yes, it’s possible, but usually they don’t have as much knowledge and experience in user experience issues, and they are not usually involved in the user research and usability testing that takes place earlier in the project. Usability and design professionals are the best judges of whether the final application matches the intended design and user experience.

When you do a usability review, you’ll often find issues that are QA defects, and the QA analysts will often find things that appear to be usability or design issues. A good way to coordinate efforts is to enter technical defects and assign them to the QA analyst to assess. The QA analyst can assign any usability or design issues that he/she finds to you to assess.

So add a usability review to your projects and you’ll find that it pays to keep usability and design formally involved all the way to the end of a project. You’ll end up with final products that more closely match the original vision.

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